Grammatical Analysis: Morphology, Syntax and Semantics: Studies in Honor of Stanley Starosta

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Reduplication in Tagalog. Unpublished ms. Carroll, J. Amherst, MA. The Sound Pattern of English. New York: Harper and Row. DeChene, B. Grossman, LJ. San and T. Chicago: CLS. Dressier, W. Morphonology: The Dynamics of Derivation. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma. Ford, A. Richardson, M.

Starosta, Stanley

Marks and A. In Eastern States Conference on Linguistics 84, ed. Columbus: Ohio Slate University. Folia Linguistica. Halle, M. Carter et al. Revue de V Association Quebecoise de Linguistique. Hetzron, R. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Hjelmslev, L. Prolegomena to a Theory of Language. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Hooper, J. An Introduction to Natural Generative Phonology. New York: Academic Press. Child morphology and morphophonemic change. Hudson, G. Suppletion in the Representation of Alternations.

Kiparsky, P. In Linguistics in the Morning Calm. Seoul: Hanshin. Kurylowicz, J. Reprinted in Readings in Linguistics II, ed. Hamp, F. On the Organization of the Lexicon.

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Bloomington: Indiana University Club. Malkiel, Y. Hispanic Review. Marchand, H. Munich- Beck. Martinet, A. Elements de Linguistique Generate. Paris: Armand Colin. Linguistische Benchte. Matthews, P. Morphology: An Introduction to the Theory of Word- structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Morin, Y.

Langlois and M E. Romance Philology. Nida, E. Morphology: A Descriptive Analysis of Words. Picard, M. Reiherches hnguistiques a Montreal. Selkirk, E. Linguistic Inquiry. The Syntax of Words. Siegel, D Topics in English Morphology. New Yoik: Garland. Recherches Linguistiques a Montreal. In Phonologica , ed. Dresslei, H. Luschutzky, O. Pfeiffer andJ. Hurch and R. Rhodes, pp. Studies m the History of Linguistics 20, ed. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Sommerstein, A. Modern Phonology. London: Edwin Arnold. Trubetzkoy, N. TravauxduCercleLingustique de Prague. Vennemann, T. In Papers from the Parasession on Natural Phonology , ed.

Bruck, R. Fox and M. Philosophical Investigations. Translated by G. New York: Macmillan. Wurzel, W. U, Studien zur deutschen Lautstruktur, Studia Giammatica 8. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. Zager, D. Clyne, W. Hanks and C. Our morphology is an autonomous component of a generative grammar, clearly identifiable by the distinctive form and the order of its operations on the one hand, and by the directionality of its relations with the other components on the other.

But one of the highest costs for our science takes the form of the birth of morphon'ology which constitutes a supplementary effort to classify, among others, the leftovers of partial assimilation of the part said to be phonological of the mixed category in phonology. Our own research has led us further towards the reduction of the range of morphological operations, but in our case this reduction was effected by avoiding the complication of phonology.

According to our aphorism, the morphological operations are limited to one, which we formulate as 5a : 5 a. The objections to this vision of language and, in particular, to the role that morphology plays in it, seem numerous in generative lin- guistics currently where, viva voce, the identification of morphologi- cal operations with those of syntax on the one hand, or with those of phonology or of a so-called morphonology, on the other, is claimed. That is why, in this article, we will respond to some of the objections to the existence, partial or total, of morphology, or at least, of mor- phology as we perceive it.

Modification; B. Possession; C. Modification: a verb modifier of this class takes a nominal form of the same case and number that would take the verb complement in a synonymous sentence of this same structure, granted with an ex- plicit and distinct verb and complement. For example, 26 would be such a synonymous sentence of 27 : 26 sapanngamik kusanatumik pisivuq pearl-INST. Kusanatumik , modifier of sapanngamik , agrees with the latter in number and gender.

In 27 the verb Some Advantages of Linguistics without Morpho pho nology S 47 complement kusanatumik is also singular and instrumental. Accord- ing to Sadock, it can only be so for the same reason as in 26 , that is, because it agrees with the verb uq's object complement, to which it has incorporated itself, i.

To describe the formal difference between the two words, Sadock opts for an explanation which considers the level of application of the operation: if the formal marks of number and case are not present, it is because the word whicli must bear these marks only realizes itself once the appropriate moment arrives in the generation.

However, the generalisation that is so obvious between 26 and Some Advantages of Linguistics without Morpho pho nology f 49 27 would be obscured if the object incorporating verbs had to appear fully formed in deep structure. According to the solution we propose also, neither one of these redundancies is necessary, but we dispense with two syntactic com- ponents, contenting ourselves with a unique and unified morpho- logical one.

In Inuttitut the morphological link between the two words sapangaq and sapangarsivuq is expressed with the strategy in 8 : 8 [X] abs. On the syntactic level, pisivuqand sapangarsivuq are two verbs which take an optional complement in the instrumental. On the grammar of these forms, it seems to us that there is nothing to add, only that the case morphology that allows one to identify sapangamiq as the instrumen- tal form in the singular corresponds to the absolutive form sapangaq of the word which designates a decorative pearl.

According to Sadock the verb niqiturpunga of sentence 33 would be of the same kind as sapangarsivuq of That is to say, that its 50 Alan Ford and Rajendra Singh stem is the result of an incorporation operation of the noun mqaanik , explicit in 32 where it is found in the singular form of the instru- mental case as a possession of tuttup , its possessor in the relative case. In 33 tuttup also figures in the relative case as a possessor of the incorporated form of niqaanik which would be the niqi- of the verb niqitwpunga in The object consists of a possessor in the relative case, followed by the pos- sessed — whose inflection indicates the person and number of the possessor, as well as the case of the entire NP.

In 33 , how- ever, we find a denominal verb; but there is si ill a possessor, and the incorporated noun is understood as possessed. Note in par- ticular that the case of the possessor is relative, just as it would be in an overt possessed-possessoi construction. Obviously, if 33 is derived from a structure very much like 32 , the case of the pos- sessor, as well as the semantics of the sentence, is accounted for directly.

Of course, our analysis offers no answer, as Sadock can pi e- tend to do so, to the question of the reason for this addition, but we represent the phenomenon the way it happens and what appears to be the essential of the linguistic con text where it occurs. A bit in the same way that from the expression lam eating , we deduce that 7 am eating food.

It seems to us that the Inuktitut, when he hears tuttup mqiturpunga y deduces that the meat I am eating is caribou meat, rather than interpreting that this animal holds another type of relation with the event. It is in this way that, to answer the troubling question Sadock seems to be asking himself, we use a natural principle of discourse economy, a bit like Grice: what is assumed is never explicitly cited or if it is there, it signifies a completely different thing.

To insure the co-reference between this mor- phological mark and the incorporated complement of the verb nassatataqarpunga , Sadock tells us, the complement of this verb should take the form of an explicit N" in D structure. However, other verbs exist in Inuttitut which take a complement in the instrumental case, and which do not have aversion corresponding to a verb having an explicit complement in the instrumental; examples are given in 11 : 11 tmgummik alallijunnijaruk du foie-INST.

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Sapangarsivuq is a morphologically intransitive verb which, syntactically, takes a complement in the in- strumental case. The representation of such facts is justified by the fact that there already exist many verbs from this class in Inuttitut, as we have indicated in 9.

These forms result at least in part, ac- cording to Bergsland 1 , from a morphological operation which links them to transitive verbs without the help of any incorporation operation. The latter says the following about it: An instrumental form may have the force of a more or less indefi- nite object or a remoter object, in combination with certain intran- sitive or intransitively used verbs, especially verbs with an intransitivizing medializing derivational suffix, e.

Other generativists have also questioned the autonomy of mor- phology on the basis of syntactic analyses of phenomena analogous to nominal incorporation in other languages, e. Our arguments contra Sadock can be easily extended to take care of these other cases. We shall, therefore, turn our attention to the other assault which morphology undergoes, and which comes from another angle. In the same way that syntax allowed itself to take over part of the legitimate domain of morphology, phonology too has given itself as a task to appropriate a naturally morphological terrain. This hypothesis is directly put to test by the notion of morpheme structure condition MSC , strongly defended by many linguists, in particular Mohanan 45 , who concludes that the construction types I have demonstrated to be relevant for phonology include the following types of informa- tion: morpheme formatives and features , word, stem, affix, type of affixation, head, modifier and complement.

To convince ourselves some more, let us look closer at the arguments put foiward by Mohanan in favour of the position he defends. It turns out, these arguments can be reduced to a set of illustra- tions of descriptions of phonological structures requiring each an MSC. Absolute morpheme internally, weak across morphemes. This example of an MSC from Mohanan gives us the ideal oppor- tunity to illustrate how our approach allows one to solve the problem without any of the inconveniences caused by his solution, and espe- cially without the use of any MSC.

The phonological WFC of English which is pertinent here is 17 , and its violation is repaired by a progressive assimilation, as illustrated in a case like cats. Notice that this transforma- tion of the consonant is not of phonological origin, as we could have imagined, because it does not depend on any WFC, the sequence [v0] being well attested in words like givth, livth, third person sin- gular, archaic or dialectal, of the present of the verbs give and live.

In what follows, we present the arguments against the other MSCs of Mohanan. Morpheme internally in English, a coda can have at most three consonants. The phenomenon which this condition aims at explaining is the fact that, in the case of words resulting from suffocation, there are codas from syllables having more than three consonants, for example in the case of a word like texts , which our strategy 16 could gener- ate.

Imagine, for example, that a company incorporated under the name American Continental Ship- ping and Transport Services is created. This not being the case, the strategy in 22 becomes suspicious and probably does not belong to the morphol- ogy of English, since the category signalled in 22 by a question mark remains undeterminable.

So from our viewpoint, these words constitute counter-examples to the MSC 20b , although Mohanan, not sharing our view of morphology, will probably not find this ob- jection valid. Morpheme internally, in English, dental fricatives can- not occur after an obstruent in a coda. It seems to us that a word like plimpth constitutes a counter-example to this condition, and there probably are others. Other reproaches concern technical points of the form of the strategy itself, of the information it actualizes and of its organization within the morphological component.

All our strategies are equally productive in the sense that they apply where they can. The nature of their competition is par- tially determined by the form of the strategy which determines its range, but in the case of real direct competition between two strat- egies having overlapping ranges, the determining factors must be extralinguistic: there is nothing in the grammar which forces us to say he strove rather than he strived, deux chevaux rather than deuxchevals , chupa-ajis rather than chupa-ajises , but there can be many extra- linguistic factors which contribute to it.

This competition between morphological strategies constitutes not only their distinctive feature when compared with the phono- logical reparation strategies, which, in contrast, are always absolute, but also gives its fatal blow to morphonology. If the formal alterna- tion between goose and geese is explained by an operation said to be morphonological and the one between duck and ducksby a morpho- logical strategy, how can we account for the forms gooses and geeses which characterizes the speech of most English speakers at a certain 58 S Alan Ford and Rajendra Singh time in their learning?

However, if both alternations are purely morphological, the variation becomes natural. An aspect of our morphology which seems not to have been well understood is the fact that it does not appear to account for so-called compound words, that is, words which, in other analyses, come from the association of two words. Words of the type ouvre- boite, nxudpapillonox mainlevce, which have been so qualified in French, are not formed of two other words, but rather, in conformity with our morphological strategy, of a constant which, in these examples, takes a form which looks like that of a real word which, as such, could well be found in another context this corresponds in our three examples to the forms ouvre -, -papillon and main- , and a variable which, as a member of a morphological category, is necessarily and by definition a word.

Thus, we reestablish the Aristotelian order overthrown by structuralism in the way we have mentioned in the beginning of this article. Let us mention, besides this advantage given by our morphology, other advantages which also help solve certain problems which have long haunted many linguists. The first concerns the question of accent placement and its place in grammar. It is clear that, for lan- guages which know a variable accent position, this variation depends, in our view, either on phonological factors, or on morphological Some Advantages of Linguistics without Morpho pho nology S 59 factors.

In a description from a theoretical framework which pos- sesses a morphonology — the classical examples are those of Latin and English — the accent is either morphonological or phonologi- cal. It seems that the supposedly phonetic basis of these pretended sub-domains of grammar has continually solicited the search for a unified theory of accent placement. By reunifying morphonology with morphology, we can hope to kill this temptation. By separating these clear examples of morphological accent placement from cases of phonological accent placement, for ex- ample the WFC limiting to only one, the number of accents in a Spanish word or the WFC which, in the same language, forbids all accents farther than three syllables from the end of the word, we hope to encourage certain people to abandon the search for a unified theory of accent placement in these languages and to concentrate their energies on more realistic objectives, that is, realizable ones.

Finally, notice how the fusion of a word-formation strategy in a unique operation with the operation said to be morphonological which, in an analysis which maintains morphonology, it is suppose to trigger, allows us to explain why we never observe the application of one without the other, which constitutes in our view a heavy argu- ment against the identification of an autonomous morphonological component.

Mendez Dosuna and Pensado also , there are not many left, and we should perhaps limit ourselves to the recent and almost convincing case presented by Morin, Langlois and Varin , which we have tre- ated in Ford and Singh Although Morin, Langlois and Varin are still right in the sense in which this operation or, more precisely, the neutralization which it accounts for is phonologized, their example seems to be a case of phonologization without generalization of the type that we estimate a criterion of the phenomenon which we are looking at.

The phenomenon has not penetrated other morphological operations, but has still reached the status of an automatic alternation, at least for an imaginative speaker. Because even the type of example raised by Morin et al. Maybe the true importance of the example under consideration is to be found in the fact that we make the mistake to raise in the same context synchrony, the communicative extraction capacity and the diachronic social generalization possibility. The rarity of such a devel- opment is here but a consequence of the fact that the happy com- bination required does not occur too often.

That is what we wanted to signal when we indicated that - ito or -ita could never trigger a monophtongization in Spanish. It might be possible, where no such extraction is re- quired, that this part of morphonology generalizes with the help of the frequent rule of competition between morphological strategies. Diachronic linguistics confirms our hypothesis of non-separability. In an analogous way, our morphology allows us to account for the behaviour of speakers in a language contact situation or during the acquisition of a second language.

Singh , Singh and Ford Singh and Martohardjono , and Singh and Parkinson, in press. In the 62 S Alan Ford and Rajendra Singh context of what we often call languages in contact, phonological and morphological adaptation are reinforced under the influence of the phonology and morphology of the borrowing language. In both contexts, morphonology behaves like the bound morphemes of Moravcsik 1 ; put differently, they do not move without being accom- panied by the words to which they belong.

It is precisely because of this way of moving that the morphology of a set of words borrowed to an undetermined number of languages morph on ologically be- have in a way whicli looks a lot like its behaviour in its original lan- guage. The limit of their variation is that determined by their phonology. Once the strategy available, it can serve to produce words which for certain speakers must always put in evidence their morphological complexity in a different way.

Ill-formity in English is at least as possible as priesthood , and mongeese as possible as mongooses. As a bonus, it follows that the dissociation of morphonology from phonology, while still allowing us to account for empirical facts, gives us a much more restrained phonology than that which results from keeping the link between both. To conclude, we estimate that the objections formulated towards a morphological component destined to feed phonology directly, without any intermediary intervention, is not in any case valid and that it is desirable to pursue without any fear of an important loss of information the use of this model for linguistic description.

This is a translation, prepared by Luc Baronian Stanford Univer- sity , of the French original which appeared in Singh ed. We are grateful to the translator for his labour. Some Advantages of Linguistics without Morpho pho nology S' 63 2. Therefore, we answer concretely a theoretical objection of Sadock for whom such a grammar would not have its raison d'etre cl. These corpuscles are of course words here.

If we dispense with this term, it is because it knows many uses in linguistics which are not all mentioned here. In particular, we would like to avoid making ref- erence to a fact which we find in many languages and which con- stitutes a syntactic operation of word-formation, often taking the form of the addition of an enclitic particle to a word, and which it is important not to confuse with a morphological operation which is clearly pre-syntactic, like the internal character of affixes versus enclitics demonstrates.

For all the examples of Greenlandic cited here, we keep the numera- tion of the examples from the articles of Sadock where they are taken. In the text of these examples, we replace the spelling used by Sadock by a phonological transcription which we need to formulate our morphological strategies. The numbers in the citation from Bergsland refer to examples which we reproduce here under 9. Actually, he goes farther when he claims that 4 [t] he evidence I have reviewed above suggests that phonological principles need to refer directly to morphosyn tactic constructs such as the morpheme, head, complement and modifier Although the word twelfth seems to illustrate the phenomenon of hapax legomena to which we referred above.

Ford and Singh Neither do we wish to affirm that a morphophonological alternation could not be produced spon- taneously during the evolution of a language. Fifthly, a morphophonological alternation can spread without there being present the phonological conditions that were present at its appearance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bergsland, K. Oslo: Skrivemaskinatua Stortingst. Bohm, D. Foundations of Physics. Bybee, Joan L. Richardson et al. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Berkeley Linguistic Society. Hooper, Joan B. An Introduciton to Natural Generative Phonology. Lieber, Rochelle. Deconstructing Morphology. Malkiel, Yakov. Hispanic Revieiv. Mendes Dosuna, Julian and Carmen Pensado. In The Handbook of Phonological Theory, ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Moravcsik, Edith A. In Universal of Human Language , ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Postal, Paul. Aspects of Phonological Theory. NY: Harper and Row. Language Autolexical Syntax. A Theory of Parallel Grammatical Representations. Chicago: University of Chicago Pi ess. Dordrecht: Foris. For Panini, the word is an entirely derived entity, some- thing made up of smaller pieces, put together according to the combinatorics he provides. The parts that enter into his combinato- rics are according to him all real cf.

Deshpande Singh Post-Renaissance grammatical practice in the West almost completely abandons the Greco-Rqman construal of morphology as a study of relationships of shapes of whole words, and ends up, perhaps aided in this transition by its increased expo- sure to Hebrew grammarians, adopting the Papinian position, later espoused by leading structuralists from Saussure cf. Singh and Vajpeyi to Bloomfield. Matthews and Robins , in particular , the Paninian way of doing morphology has been dominant for centuries now, possibly because a fully for- malized full-fledged alternative had not been made available until recently neither fish nor fowl attempts such as Anderson [] actually end up supporting the Paninian view, as Sadock [] is happy to note.

The purpose of this short dialogue-initiating note is to outline the alternative that has been available at least 3 since Ford and Singh , to show some of its applications, and to invite South Asianists to tell us why the Paninian view of morphology should be preferred. Hoping to shift the burden of proof, we shall concentrate not on the critique of that view, best characterized as morphemology Janda , but on the presentation of whole-word morphology.

The Theory All that needs to be said about word structure in any language of any type whatsoever can and must be said by instantiations of the schema in 1 below. We refer to these instantiations as W ord F ormation S trategies because as generalizations drawn from known particular facts, they can be activated in the production and understanding of new words cf. Ford and Singh and Ford, Singh and Martohardjono The diversity that exists can be read off the system of strategies that instantiate 1 above, but it does not need to be expressed as a difference in type: a difference in content does not constitute a difference in form of rules or strategies.

Again, multiplicity is superficial, and resides in descriptive, pedagogical paraphrases of instantiations of 1. As all morphological relationships can be expressed by strategies instantiating 1 , morphology has little or no architecture and, to change the metaphor, no traffic rules such as before taddhita.

Although there may well be constraints on what sorts of things can be morphologized, i. Their exploitation, of course, helps her to bridge the gap between the actual words she happens to know and the possible words she can be said to know — actually their existence makes the known merely a subset of the knowable. They are not there to be deleted; they are just not there. WFSs cannot supply these things because they do not have them. Some South Asian Examples Below, we provide some examples of morphological strategies from English and other South Asian languages the parenthetical com- ment draws attention to what some would like attention drawn to.

When not enclosed in phonemic bars, words from languages other than English are given in their standard transliterated form in which D stands for retroflex d and are provided with glosses. The category specifications below are also minimal but sufficient to meet the needs at hand. Philip , a debate which presupposes that the distinction is a viable one! Til umalesh Singh and Agnihotri Singh and Dasgupta Nor is there any need to appeal to this fictitious construct to capture other such relationships.

Conclusion Even at the risk of being redundant, we wish to underline the fact that the WFSs presented in Section 3 above do not appeal to or use any Paninian construct such as dhatu, anga, vibhakti , pratyaya etc. Nor do they use concepts such as inflection, derivation, and com- pounding etc. Yet these strategies say exactly what needs to be said about the bits of morphology they describe, and some of what they do say is hard, if not impossible, to say in Paninian terms.

Whereas Paninian morphology sees what could be called morphological complexity as a matter of layers of morphological structure, our strat- egies invite one to think of words it would call complex as made up of variables and constants that have been non-hierarch ically put together, provided, of course, there are strategies that licence such analyses. Thus, both English Marxism and Hindi gho:Da:ga:Di can be analyzed as made up of substrings that correspond to what is varied and what is held constant in the relevant strategies they are, it is important to underline, identified as such ONLY in the strat- egies.

If these strategies are in fact invoked to create these words, they will not, we want to emphasize, supply any boundaries or brack- ets, only seamless wholes Marxwmandgho:Da:ga:Di that will show up as words after phonological processeses have given them the phonetic shape they must have to count as words.

The need to divide non-category bearing substrings into roots and stems, etc. As for the word, it is clearly indicated by a bald, unadorned and unsupported X, whose ability to bear a category does not depend on the presence of some other supporting material or by an X AND the bound material whose support it needs before it can take on the burden of bearing a cat- egory cf. And it ig, of course, forever nitya. Although the different types of substrings in deconcatenatable representations can be easily, perhaps even trivially, identified, there is no reason to give them any status or special names, except perhaps for heuristic and pedagogi- cal reasons, and even then a caveat lektor is needed.

As for morphological typology, it is perhaps only a matter of the types of Xs that dominate particular morphologies. Thus, it is pos- sible to refer to a morphological system or a part of a morphological system in which only bald, unadorned Xs bear categories as word- based and to systems or subsystems characterized by the absence of such bald Xs as non-word based. This naming device does not, however, require giving up the assumption that morphology relates whole words with whole words, obviously contra Panini. The former inflection vs derivation is a re- sult of confusing form with function cf.

Singh and Ford We are also grateful to Sylvain Neuvel for drawing our attention to certain matters of exposition. Sakatayana, an honoured name mentioned by Panini himself, is known to have argued that affixes do not have any meanings out- side the words they appear in. Although his work has not survived, we speculate that he must have argued for what we can call whole- word morphology, the view from which the non-autonomy of affixes would naturally follow. We argue for that non-autonomy in Ford and Singh Although, a full outline of the theory in question is provided only in Ford and Singh , implicit and explicit suggestions regarding its shape and claims are available in papers written as early as the early s cf.

Ford and Singh and The word is a quantum of information whose particle properties are made reference to by phonology and morphology while its syntax and semantics make its wave properties explicit. The point of saying it this way is to make it clear that so-called com- pounds are single words and DO NOT contain two or more words cf. Singh and Dasgupta. As most contemporary versions of Paninian morphology do not reject this distinction, we refer here specifically to The Astadhydyi and NOT to Paninian morphology in general.

References Agnihotri, Rama Kant. New Delhi: Jawaharlal Nehru University. A-moiphous Morphology. Dasgupta, P. Projective Syntax: Theory and Applications. Pune: Deccan College. Deshpande, M. Building blocks or useful fictions: Changing views of morphology in Ancient Indian Grammatical Thought.

London: Kegan Paul International in association with. Ohio: Ohio State University. In Trubetzkoy's Orfrhan, ed. Singh, pp.

How to Write a Business Plan Grammatical Analysis: Morphology, Syntax and Semantics: Studies in Honor of Stanley Starosta (Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Grammatical Analysis: Morphology, Syntax, and Semantics: Studies in Honor of Stanley Starosta (review) | This volume.

In Trubetzkoy's Orphan, ed. In Linguistics Today. Singh and Gita Martohardjono Janda, R Richardson, et al. Kelkar, A. New Delhi: Sage Publications. Morphology: An Introduction to the Theory of Word-struc- ture. Philip, M. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Robins, R. Transactions of the Philological Society Anderson, A-morphous Morphology.

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